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Social media in ethiopia pdf

Recent findings show teenagers use social media increasingly in their daily life. The objective of this study is to assess how Ethiopian secondary school students perceive the benefits and risks associated with social media use. Data were collected from secondary schools students through self-reported questionnaire. The findings reveal that the leading perceived benefits of social media are recreational and relational purposes. As a pilot study in a developing country, this study may raise awareness of schools, teachers, and parents about the benefits and risks of using social media for teenager students.

Thereby, there will be future researches that enable them to effectively monitor their students to use social media primarily for academic purposes. As findings from various studies show, the use of social media is increasingly becoming popular among the youths worldwide due to their interactive features Ahn ; Carter ; Lev-on ; Reid and Weigle ; Tartari ; Williams and Ricciardelli Social media constitute websites that are designed to enable users to share information, exchange ideas, and participate in content modification online.

They are widely in use among public services and students in different levels of education Dhir and Tsai Reports indicate that the number of users of social media is increasing from time to time and exceeding billions. InFacebook alone reported that there were 1. Teenagers are among the prolific users of these social media around the world Ahn ; Mazman and Usluel ; Williams and Ricciardelli The fact that social media platforms are cheaper, user-friendly and more interactive than other modes of communication channels, and openness to everyone Khan et al.

In Ethiopia, although no study has been conducted on the trends of social media use, it is believed that a large number of teenager students are active users. Given that large numbers of social media user, teenager students are coming on board; it seems worthwhile to be concerned about benefits and risks of the users. Hence, the primary objective of this study is to assess how secondary school students in Ethiopia perceive the benefits and risks associated with social media use.

The study may serve as a pilot study for further extensive studies aimed at devising intervention programs that could maximize the benefits and reduce risks associated with using social media. Worldwide, scientific evidences show that social media are primarily used for recreational and relational purposes Barth ; Kokkinos and Saripanidis ; Manasijevic et al. To start with its positive aspects, there are studies that highlight the roles of social media in building positive personality traits and increasing the academic opportunities for teenagers Akcaoglu and David ; Kaya and Bicen ; Lee and Horsley ; Marino et al.

Students can share academic information, give and receive academic scaffoldings, and get connected to each other through social media platforms. A study by Akcaoglu and David further shows that social media can play considerable role to engage students in learning processes, feeling closer to the given course contents, and perceiving their instructors as more involved.

Last, social media also have a potential to facilitate collaborative learning among the students and with faculty Sharma et al. Nonetheless, social media become increasingly being used for educational purposes Delcore and Neufeld ; some authors firmly emphasize the risks related to their use.

For example, there are various undesired effects and uncertainties associated with excessive use of social media such as peer humiliation, cyberbullying, depression, isolation, and academic fluctuations Kokkinos and Saripanidis ; Patton et al.

Perceived Benefits and Risks of Social Media: Ethiopian Secondary School Students’ Perspectives

Comparing the benefits of social media with their risks, some authors argue that their disadvantages are far greater than their advantages Ho et al. These risk behaviors can be viewed from three points of view: personal, academic, and emotional Ahn ; Lev-on ; Smith et al. This may eventually lead teenagers to emotional depression and social withdrawal McCrae et al.

Furthermore, if teenagers are obsessed with their own physical appearance, they may develop narcissistic personality disorder Kaya and Bicen Research findings further illustrate that due to addictive social media use, there are major mental health problem, sexting, and suicide among adolescents Luxton et al.

Although there are several problems associated with social media use, the benefits of social media have well-considered for educational purposes.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Challenges and opportunities of Facebook as a media platform in Ethiopia. Sileshie Semahagne. Received 16 April ; Accepted 4 July, This paper aims at analyzing the opportunities and challenges Facebook, which is the most widely used social media in Ethiopia, entails as a media platform in Ethiopia.

It also looked into the needs that the users gratify upon using Facebook. It is also found that Facebook is being more used for entertainment, socialization and emotional release functions. To the flip side, the findings indicated that Facebook is less used for information, discussion, education and business purposes in the country.

More importantly, Facebook is found to cause addiction and most users are spending their time on it for trivialities.

Ethiopia: Social media and news websites blocked by government to prevent protests

It is also found that Facebook is being unnecessarily used for sharing sexual contents and that it causes leaking of personal information. Key words: Facebook, social media, uses and gratifications, Ethiopian users. It is also tered a tremendous development in both increment of registering growth in both areas. Eventhough, it was of an number of users and extent of reach. In Februarythe number of Facebook, cited in Wilson et al.

Of all the Facebook users all over the world grew to over continents, Africa with the least penetration rate 4. The number is still growing up immensely. Ethiopia ranked 94th among the world and 11th among Though there is difference in the amount of users due African countries with itsnumber of Facebook to literacy and technological variations in different users, and with a penetration rate of 0.

Media Commun. Users also use it to connect information can be published without editing and filtration. As to Fletcher While some feel relieved, others question the validity ofLewis et al. It is, however, difficult to single out the specific roles Hence, analyzing the media platform in light of its Facebook play in different socio-cultural and political challenges and prospects for users is essential. The socio-political and cultural contributions communication. Wilson et al. Statement of the problem Specific objectives Many Ethiopians are joining Facebook every day.

Amid its tremendous increase in accessibility and its rapid Specifically, this research was intended to: transformation as a media platform for unfolding socio- cultural and political events, opposing views are being 1. On Facebook, media platform in Ethiopia users enjoy the freedom to publish contents that may spread hate, degrade cultural values, and affect the overall wellbeing of societies Gladwell, To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Amnuale Alemu. To this end, scholarly works such as books, articles and other sources in the area of media print and electronics 2 and politics were reviewed.

Discourse analysis was applied to examine the various debates of the media practices and politics in Ethiopia. The study revealed that media and politics in Ethiopia are highly intertwined. The political history of the nation throughout all periods has dictated the development of Ethiopian media.

The media has served wishes and whims of those on power. The professionalism of journalists, media management and organization and independence of the media need to be improved.

Mainly, the analysis indicates that the media must be run by an independent media council and should exercise self regulation. Introduction 1. The country is said to be one of the pioneers of world civilization having more than years of history Harold, Besides, Ethiopia is the cradle or origin of human beings as archeological studies demonstrate.

According to Marcusp. In addition to the foundations of Lucy, later findings also proved that Ethiopia is the origin of human species. Moreover, according to Adeuumobip. Axum was an offshoot of the Semitic Sabean kingdoms of southern Arabia. This is also further elaborated by Pankhrustp. Besides, according to Kefyalew Ethiopian long time history can be also traced in the writing of Herodotus BCwho is the renowned ancient Greek philosopher.

The Ethiopian Civilization reached its peak during the Axumite Civilization. This marked the political stability and revival of the political administration. On the other hand, regarding the historical development of the media, which is also often referred as press, in Ethiopia, it is possible to argue and to trace back its beginning to the early years of Christianity when Geez3 became the dominant medium.

Getachewp. Then Geez became the medium of politics, culture and religion. The religious and non-religious publications as well as the different historical and religious writings on parchment may mark the beginning of early press in Ethiopia.Google transparency report shows dramatic drop in internet traffic out of Ethiopia on two days when at least people were killed by security forces during protest.

The Ethiopian government systematically and illegally blocked access to social media and news websites in its efforts to crush dissent and prevent reporting of attacks on protesters by security forces during a wave of protests over the last year, a new report released today shows.

Research conducted by Amnesty International and the Open Observatory of Network Interference shows that between June and October this year during times of heightened tension and protests, access to WhatsApp and at least 16 news outlets was blocked, especially in the Oromia region. The government declared a six-month state of emergency in October this year in response to the protests.

The study was conducted to investigate whether and to what extent internet censorship was actually taking place after contacts of Amnesty and the Open Observatory of Network Interference in Ethiopia consistently reported unusually slow internet connections and inability to access social media websites. Testimonies gathered by Amnesty from different parts of Oromia found that social media mobile applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have been largely inaccessible since early March this year, especially in the Oromia region where residents were waging protests against the government since last November.

Amnesty contacts also reported that internet access on mobile devices had been completely blocked in Amhara, Addis Ababa and Oromia in the lead up to protests in the three regions on 6 and 7 August.

social media in ethiopia pdf

The reality, though, is very different. This raises serious concerns that overly broad censorship will become institutionalised under the state of emergency. DPI is a technology that can be bought and deployed on any network. Though it has many legitimate functions, it can also enable monitoring and filtering of internet traffic. This all paints a picture of a government intent on stifling expression and free exchange of information.

The protests later spread to Amhara, with demands for an end to arbitrary arrests, as well as respect for regional autonomy rights enshrined in the constitution. Most of the protests were met with excessive force from the security forces. The worst incident involved the death of possibly hundreds of protesters in a stampede on 2 October at Bishoftu.

A company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales and a charity registered in England and Wales and Scotland SC Amnesty International United Kingdom Section. A company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales Amnesty International UK. Login Search Menu. Log in. Press releases RSS feed. Ethiopia: Social media and news websites blocked by government to prevent protests 13 Decam.

Receive urgent actions to Your phone. Join our email list Sign up. Follow us. Amnesty International. About this site. Get in touch. Quick links.The diverse array of papers presented indicated that the implications of social media use for democracy in Africa are promising and multi-faceted, yet subject to a number of constraints.

How social media shaped calls for political change in Ethiopia

Even relatively casual observers of African politics will have noted that in the aftermath of the Arab awakening, the internet and social media have become the next frontier for the contestation of political power and democratic expression. In recent months, both Cameroon and Ethiopia made headlines after shutting down the internet in regions that were experiencing protests against discriminatory government practices. While the conference sought to explore trends and developments beyond the hashtag, the transformative impact of digital protests cannot be ignored.

social media in ethiopia pdf

RhodesMustFall drove protests at the University of Cape Town which resulted in the removal of a statue of the 19 th century politician and mining magnate, leading to similar protests in the United Kingdom and significantly greater confrontation amidst the FeesMustFall campaign that subsequently spread across South African university campuses.

A key takeaway from the 20 papers presented at the symposium was the tension between the successful application of social media to strengthen advocacy for democracy in Africa and the challenge of ensuring that social media users are genuinely digitally empowered. Much of the broader debate about the prospects for social media use in Africa as a tool to strengthen democracy focuses on strategies to develop infrastructure and increase internet penetration and the prevalence of social media use, underlying inherent assumptions of its virtue.

While the symposium covered much ground, a number of the presentations pointed to a need to move beyond purely technical considerations when considering strategies to strengthen democracy in Africa via social media expression. Despite the diverse range of case studies and platforms considered including Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsAppfour key areas emerged concerning ethical and practical constraints on the use of social media:.

A number of digital protest movements, such as ThisFlag in Zimbabwe have relied on charismatic leaders. In that case, when its leader, Pastor Evan Mawarire fled the country, its initial success was halted. A recurring theme at the Symposium was the extent to which social media users interact with those of similar opinions, mirroring offline tendencies of social interaction. Thus, despite the tendency of Africans to use social media for political debate significantly more frequently than many of their western counterparts, increased social media use may not necessarily in itself be the answer to democratization.

While symposium participants noted that social media discourse is generally more anti-government than mainstream media, speakers were at pains to note that this difference was not overwhelming. Authoritarian countries have deployed social media strategies to shore up support. In the case of Burundi, the opposition seems to have recognized the importance of these efforts as Willy Nyamitwea leading pro-government social media personality, survived an assassination attempt last year.

Social media use, like print and radio before it, is not inherently confined to promoting democratic practice.

The Uses and Abuses of Social Media in Africa

Fisher pointed to a troubling shift where interventions in the sphere of information technology for development that were previously oriented to merely strengthening access to information are now shifting to a focus that relies upon the quality and quantity of specific information others hold about individuals and groups. Despite these constraints, social media is serving as a positive force for social change.

The symposium highlighted the success of Kenyan social media users in particular. Kenyans on Twitter also successfully mobilized to counter attempts by their government to censor the music video for the Same Love Remix by Art Attack, a gay rights anthem. However, the research points to an acute need for a more nuanced understanding of the role of social media in shaping democratic discourse.

Opportunities are accompanied by risks, and just as citizens are using social media to proactively shape more open, democratic societies, governments and corporate interests are plotting to co-opt the new media in much the same way traditional print and audio broadcasters were historically manipulated to serve partisan interests.

The contours of social media use in Africa continue to take shape, but we are already witnessing where the fault lines over its applications lie. As the scholars participating in the Beyond the Hashtag Symposium have identified, social media, like the media technologies before it, is contested.

The dynamics at play are at once evolving and indicative of future trends. Social media use in Africa may be the answer, but the questions its users respond to are not static. Democracy in Africa. Share on Facebook. Join in the debate Cancel reply.The mass media in Ethiopia consist of radiotelevision and the Internetwhich remain under the control of the Ethiopian government, as well as private newspapers and magazines.

Ten radio broadcast stations, eight AM and two shortwaveare licensed to operate in Ethiopia.

social media in ethiopia pdf

The only terrestrial broadcast television networks are government owned and include Ethiopian Television 24 hours of broadcast and other regional stations i. In keeping with government policy, radio broadcasts occur in a variety of languages including Amharic, Afaan Oromo, Tigrigna, and more.

Satellite television has been very popular in Ethiopia for many years, with people often watching foreign channels in English and Arabic due to the lack of choice in the Ethiopian television industry. However, starting ina number of new satellite channels serving the Ethiopian market started broadcasting in the main local language of Amharic.

Many of these new channels focused on infotainmentas this type of programming had been for the most part lacking in the past. Most popular of these channels being Kana TVwho focused on providing dubbed foreign dramas, very popular in Ethiopia, to their audiences. Despite increasing pressure from the current government at home, the much more affluent and cosmopolitan Ethiopian diaspora abroad has helped further the cause for a free press in Ethiopia, and has also catered to its many extra-national communities with news services both online and off in both Amharic and English.

There have been three major forces involved in the evolution of media in Ethiopia: 1 the need to communicate information about Ethiopia to the external world in order to create an international awareness of Ethiopia and its leaders, 2 the need for internal communication to provide information and to develop a sense of national identity and, later 3 the need to utilize media for education and the development of a healthy and literate work force.

The first two of the three forces came into play in the late s when it was decided that Ethiopia should have a radio system.

Ras Tafari Mekonnen later Atse Haile Selassie I was especially interested at this time in the new technology of wireless communication and "initiated many radio projects with the object of establishing suitable links both inside and outside Ethiopia as rapidly as possible A tender was granted to the Ansaldo Corporation of Italy in for the construction of a one-kilowatt station; the formal contract was signed in The station would facilitate wireless "telegraphy and telephony at Akaki [where] the foundation was laid on July 21, ".

The Italians took over the station in and planned to develop it into a communications center for their new empire, joining those already established in Somalia and in Asmara Radio Marina. A more powerful radio station of seven kilowatts was started by the Italians in and taken over by the British in The British returned the one-kilowatt station to the Ethiopians but maintained the seven-kilowatt station.

Inthe Press and Information Department in the Ministry of Pen assumed responsibility for broadcasting. During the period of —45, the seven-kilowatt station was not in operation; this created a point of contention between Haile Selassie and the British authorities.

Radio broadcasts began in on the one kilowatt station with a staff of seven, broadcasting four hours a day in AmharicArabic and English. In the s, the Imperial Bodyguard operated its own station, broadcasting from a one-kilowatt short-wave transmitter.Abiy's speech promised a new era for ethnic unity, democracy and freedom of speech.

It was a radical departure for a country embroiled in long-standing ethnic and political divisions and notorious for its repressed media. Ethiopia's newfound hope was no coincidence; it was the culmination of hard-fought political activism that had forced change upon the authoritarian nation. Untilthe country was led by Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, a cunning hardliner who consolidated power around his minority ethnic group, the Tigrayans, and cemented Ethiopia's political order.

After his sudden death six years ago, he was replaced by Hailemariam Desalegn, who largely continued the status quo.

During the past few decades, Ethiopia's diverse ethnic groups were often subjugated and politically marginalised. This was primarily felt among the two largest groups, the Omoros 34 percent and the Amharas 27 percent. Crafty legislation, like 's anti-terrorism law, silenced criticism of the political order.

Prisons became crammed with opposition politicians and journalists who reported governmental abuses. If Abiy Ahmed does not deliver the promise of democracy, then we'll be back to social media I'm prepared to go back to prison again.

5 Crazy Ways Social Media Is Changing Your Brain Right Now

So whether there's democracy or no democracy, it's back to work. There's no choice. Ina critical turning point ignited the political upheaval. Large-scale demonstrations erupted against the government's plans to extend Addis Ababa's borders into Oromo territory.

The peaceful Oromo protesters were violently suppressed by the government, and numerous people were injured or killed. The protests garnered international attention and soon inspired a nationwide demand for change.

Essential to the protest's success was the use of social media. We take that, we verify it, we edit it and we air it back to them. Jawar Mohammed became a central player in the Oromo protests and exemplifies how social media affected change.

Working mainly from the US, Jawar was one of many diaspora journalists who took advantage of social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook to bypass strict government censorship. Through these mediums, he helped orchestrate demonstrations and broadcast undeniable proof of the government's abuses to millions of followers.

Aided by social media, the protests soon paid dividends. Now, with a guarantee from the government that journalists can report freely, an opportunity exists to hold the new government to account. So, whether there's democracy or no democracy, it's back to work. Ethiopia's PM and Eritrea's president signed a joint declaration of peace and friendship in Asmara on Monday.

AfricaEritreaEthiopia. Agreement appears to be another step by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed to improve the country's security. EthiopiaAfricaEritrea.


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